COVID-19 vaccine

What You Need to Know About COVID-19 Vaccines

Getting vaccinated is one of the most crucial steps in protecting yourself and your loved ones from COVID-19. It is also to achieve herd immunity for the greater good. Learn more about COVID-19 types of vaccines, facts, safety, who is eligible, commonly asked questions and more.

At Pantai Hospitals, your health and safety are our priorities.

COVID-19 vaccines are administered as injections into the upper arm muscle or thigh of young children. The ingredients in these vaccines are generally considered safe for most individuals and closely resemble common food components such as fats, sugar, and salts. Importantly, none of the COVID-19 vaccines impact or interact with our DNA.

Notably, the vaccines do not contain:

  • Preservatives such as thimerosal or mercury or others.
  • Antibiotics such as sulfonamide or others.
  • Medications like ivermectin or others.
  • Materials derived from animals or tissues, such as aborted foetal cells, gelatine.
  • Allergens include eggs, gluten, peanuts, tree nuts, and other proteins. The manufacturing facilities for COVID-19 vaccines are separate from those producing food products.
  • Metals include iron, nickel, cobalt, titanium, or rare earth alloys.
  • Manufactured products like microelectronics, electrodes, carbon nanotubes or nanowire semiconductors.
  • Latex, including the vial stoppers used, are latex-free.

After the immune response is generated, the body naturally eliminates all vaccine ingredients, mirroring the normal process of discarding substances no longer needed by cells.

Studies have shown that getting vaccinated against COVID-19 can lower your risk of getting and spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. Vaccines also help reduce the risk of severe illnesses and deaths from COVID-19 infections among fully vaccinated people. Getting sick with COVID-19 can cause serious health consequences, even in children.

Therefore, do ensure that you and your family are fully vaccinated. Take your booster doses when you are eligible.

corona-kv-thumbnail

booster-kv-thumbnail

below12-kv-thumbnail

dt-kv-thumbnail

COVID-19 : Care and Support
antibody-kv-thumbnail
ppv-kv-thumbnail
ppv-kv-thumbnail

Understanding COVID-19 Vaccines

Types of vaccines mRNA Viral vector Inactivated virus

Source of information: AKADEMI SAINS MALAYSIA

Technology and the COVID-19 vaccine

Moderna and Pfizer BioNTech's vaccines use mRNA (messenger RNA) technology. mRNA vaccines employ laboratory-created mRNA to instruct our cells in producing a protein or a specific protein segment, which then induces an immune response within our bodies. The mRNA introduced by the vaccines undergoes degradation within a few days post-vaccination and is subsequently eliminated from the body.

The Oxford/AstraZeneca and Sinovac-CoronaVac are types of inactivated vaccines that include adjuvants, substances often used in various vaccines with a proven safety track record. Notably, adjuvants are commonly found in vaccines like those for Hepatitis B and Tetanus, which have well-documented safety profiles.

Importance of COVID-19 vaccination
  • Preventing severe illness: The COVID-19 vaccines accessible in Malaysia are safe and efficient in preventing individuals from experiencing severe illness, hospitalisation, and mortality.
  • A safer method for immunity: Opting for a COVID-19 vaccine is a safer and more dependable means of acquiring protection compared to contracting COVID-19.
  • Additional protection: COVID-19 vaccines extend additional protection to individuals who have previously had COVID-19, preventing hospitalisation due to a new infection.
COVID-19 vaccination: Safe for Pregnant Women and Breastfeeding Mothers?

COVID-19 Vaccination in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Pre-pregnancy

All available types of COVID-19 vaccine are safe and are not associated with infertility. Women are encouraged to complete their vaccinations before embarking on pregnancy.

During pregnancy

COVID-19 vaccines are deemed safe and efficacious throughout pregnancy, and there is no evidence supporting the necessity of postponing vaccination until after the initial 12 weeks. Pregnant mothers should not be denied vaccination at any gestation after weighing its benefits and risks as they are most vulnerable to infection in the late second and third trimesters. All types of COVID-19 vaccines currently available and used in Malaysia are safe for women planning to conceive or currently pregnant.

Breastfeeding

All available types of COVID-19 vaccines are safe during breastfeeding. Women may receive their COVID-19 vaccination once they have made a complete recovery following labour. Recent reports have shown that breastfeeding women who have received COVID-19 vaccines have antibodies in their breast milk which could help protect their babies. As such, current evidence does not indicate any risks with COVID-19 vaccinations among breastfeeding women, particularly for mRNA and AstraZeneca vaccines.

Antibody monitoring

Monitoring of antibodies after vaccination to assess immunity or protection is not recommended by the FDA.

General advice

It is recommended to follow standard precautions such as masking, maintaining physical distancing and personal hygiene. Vaccinations are crucial as they can reduce deaths and hospitalisation rates.

If you are pregnant and facing a dilemma over receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, please consider:

  • Your risk of exposure to COVID-19
  • The risks of severe illness
  • The known benefits of vaccination
  • The limited but growing evidence about the safety of vaccination during pregnancy.

Consult your obstetrician at Pantai Hospitals if you have any questions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy or if you have any doubts so that you can make an informed decision. This is especially so if other co-morbidities are present including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Vaccinations are safe for lactating women and may offer protection to your infant.

The unexpected onset of the COVID-19 pandemic dramatically altered our lives, compelling us to adapt to a 'new normal.' Despite the initial challenges, a ray of hope emerged with the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines by various pharmaceutical companies.

However, two pivotal questions linger: Can individuals still contract COVID-19 after vaccination, and are those who have previously tested positive for the virus eligible for vaccination? Let's explore these questions together.

Can vaccinated individuals still get infected with COVID-19?

It is crucial to recognise that COVID-19 vaccines have proven effective in preventing infections. Nevertheless, there exists a minimal possibility of contracting COVID-19 even after vaccination, albeit the risk is extremely low.

The vaccination process involves two doses administered over several weeks, allowing for a complete activation of the immune system. Despite vaccination, exercising caution through social distancing and maintaining hygiene remains imperative.

Can those who have recovered from COVID-19 be vaccinated?

Individuals can receive the vaccine once they have recovered from the acute illness and meet the criteria to discontinue isolation.

Will life return to normal for vaccinated individuals?

While vaccination is a crucial step towards normalcy, it should not replace fundamental preventive measures. Being a responsible citizen involves getting vaccinated, but it is equally important to adhere to basic precautions such as regular handwashing, wearing masks in public spaces, and maintaining social distancing.

Types of vaccines mRNA Viral vector Inactivated virus

Source of information: AKADEMI SAINS MALAYSIA

Technology and the COVID-19 vaccine

Moderna and Pfizer BioNTech's vaccines use mRNA (messenger RNA) technology. mRNA vaccines employ laboratory-created mRNA to instruct our cells in producing a protein or a specific protein segment, which then induces an immune response within our bodies. The mRNA introduced by the vaccines undergoes degradation within a few days post-vaccination and is subsequently eliminated from the body

The Oxford/AstraZeneca and Sinovac-CoronaVac are types of inactivated vaccines that include adjuvants, substances often used in various vaccines with a proven safety track record. Notably, adjuvants are commonly found in vaccines like those for Hepatitis B and Tetanus, which have well-documented safety profiles.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on COVID-19

  1. What is the latest SOP for COVID-19 positive cases?

    If you are COVID-19 positive, you should start self-isolating at home with digital Home Surveillance Order (HSO) for five (5) days from the date of onset of symptoms. The Home Surveillance Order (HSO) will be available via the MySejahtera application. Remember to update and complete the Home Assessment Tool (HAT) in the MySejahtera application as well.

  2. How do I obtain the Home Surveillance Order (HSO) digital certificate?

    To obtain the HSO digital certificate, you must report all COVID-19 screening test results including RTK-Ag self-tests in your MySejahtera application.

  3. Is the duration of HSO counted from the date of symptom onset or the date of a positive COVID-19 test?

    The duration of HSO is counted from the date of symptom onset. Here is an example: If you start to experience COVID-19 symptoms on 1 January but the result of the COVID-19 test is only positive on 3 January, the duration of HSO is 1-5 January 2024 (for 5 days).

  4. What do I need to do after completing the isolation period?

    Upon completing the isolation period, you can resume daily activities. However, you should practice the following preventive measures until the 10th day to avoid the risk of spreading COVID-19 infection to others.

    • Wear a face mask when leaving the house.
    • Avoid being in crowded places.
    • Avoid visiting high-risk groups / individuals.
    • Make only necessary / essential trips.
    • Always wash your hands with soap or use hand sanitizer.
    • Ensure good ventilation.
  5. Do I need to repeat COVID-19 self-test after completing the isolation period?

    It is not necessary to repeat COVID-19 screening tests including self-test after completing the isolation period. Remember to continue practicing the preventive measures as mentioned above to reduce the risk spreading COVID-19 infection to others.

  6. What should I do if I still have symptoms after completing the isolation period?

    If your symptoms persist after completing the isolation period, you should visit a doctor. At the meantime, please wear a face mask while you are out and about to reduce the risk of transmission of the COVID-19 infection.

  7. What should I do if I am a close contact of a positive COVID-19 case?

    If you are experiencing symptoms (symptomatic close contact), you are encouraged to self-isolate and perform RTK-Ag self-test on the first day of symptoms. If the result is negative, repeat self-test on the third day. If the self-test results are negative and symptoms subside, you can resume outdoor activities by practicing preventive measures.However,if the self-test results are positive within the symptom observation period, HSO will be given.

    If you do not have symptoms, you can continue with daily activities as usual by practicing preventive measures within five days from the last day of exposure to a positive COVID-19 case.

  8. What to do if an individual from high-risk groups is COVID-19 positive?

    Individuals from high-risk groups who are COVID-19 positive should go to the nearest healthcare facility immediately even if they only experience mild symptoms. They should undergo a health assessment and be given the antiviral Paxlovid treatment if they meet the criteria. Paxlovid should be initiated within five days of symptoms to alleviate symptoms effectively and prevent the disease from worsening.

  9. Do I need to take a COVID-19 booster dose?

    It is not mandatory for any individual to get the COVID-19 vaccination. However, the public is encouraged to get the primary doses and the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine to reduce the risk of transmission, morbidity, and death especially among high-risk groups.

    High-risk groups include the elderly above 60 years old, individuals with co-morbidities, obesity, individuals who are immunocompromised, pregnant mothers, and frontline healthcare workers. These individuals are encouraged to take an additional booster dose after 6-12 months from the last dose.

  10. Can I take the subsequent booster doses of COVID-19 vaccine if it is already more than 6-12 months since my last dose?

    The current policy in Malaysia for administration of additional booster doses is up to the second booster dose only.

  11. Is wearing a face mask mandatory?

    The use of face masks is not mandatory. However, it is highly encouraged for high-risk individuals such as the elderly, individuals with chronic diseases, immunocompromised or pregnant mothers, especially when being in crowded places and where ventilation is poor.

    Individuals with symptoms of respiratory illnesses are also highly encouraged to wear face masks to prevent infection to others.

    All positive cases of COVID-19 and individuals at healthcare facilities are required to wear face masks.

  12. What are the measures to prevent respiratory infections such as COVID-19, influenza, and mycoplasma pneumoniae?

    Wear a face mask in crowded places, practice good cough etiquette, wash hands frequently with soap or use hand sanitizer, practice good hygiene, ensure good ventilation, and get vaccinated.

  13. Should the public worry about the emergence of new COVID-19 variants?

    The SARS-CoV-2 virus is an RNA virus that constantly undergoes mutations. Since early 2022 until now, the dominant variant is Omicron. Various new sub-variants of Omicron such as XBB, BA.4, BA.5, BA1.16 and BA2.86 have been detected, but there have been no changes in the clinical presentation and severity caused.

    The Ministry of Health (KKM) has reassured the public that there is no cause for concern if the SARS-CoV-2 virus undergoes minor changes that enhance its transmissibility, as long as these changes do not result in more severe disease.

Covid-19 Vaccine General Information
How to Wear and Remove A Surgical Mask Correctly

10 things you
need to know about
COVID-19 Vaccine

Find Out More
8 Important Steps To Hand Hygiene

Myths & Misconceptions
of COVID-19 Vaccine

Find Out More
Myths on Coronavirus

Positive
COVID-19 home
quarantine facts

Find Out More
 Your Safety Always Comes First

Types of
vaccines

Find Out More
Are you safe after vaccinated?

Are you safe from
COVID-19 after
getting vaccinated?

Find Out More

Pregnant woman or
Lactating mother

Find Out More
Do's and Don'ts to Reduce Risks of Respiratory Infection for Children

Cardiovascular disease
or heart problems?

Find Out More

References

For the latest information about COVID-19, please visit Ministry of Health Malaysia.

Source: Ministry of Health Malaysia, WHO, CDC

corona-kv-thumbnail

dt-kv-thumbnail

ppv-kv-thumbnail

antibody-kv-thumbnail

ppv-kv-thumbnail
Loading...
Thank you for your patience