Neurology - Brain, Nerves & Spine Care

Neurology is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. It is a complex and sophisticated system that regulates bodily functions.

The two major divisions are:

  • Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system: other than the brain and spinal cord, such as cranial nerves and spinal nerves

A neurologist is a doctor who specialises in neurology. As neurologists do not perform surgery, patients are usually referred to a neurosurgeon if a patient requires surgery.

What are the common neurological conditions?

The most common neurological conditions include:

  • Epilepsy
  • Headaches/migraines
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Acute spinal cord injuries
  • Ataxia
  • Bell’s palsy
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Stroke
  • Brain tumours
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Head injuries
  • Motor neuron disease
  • Infections of the brain
  • Cerebral Palsy

What are the common neurological symptoms?

Following are some common neurological symptoms:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Confusion
  • Spasms
  • Seizures
  • Loss of sensation
  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Numbness in the legs or arms
  • Poor memory or concentration
  • Dizziness
  • Tremors
  • Poor coordination
  • Sleep problems
  • Difficulty swallowing or eating
  • Speech problems
  • Vision problems
  • Headaches

* Please note that symptoms may differ from person to person, and a proper evaluation by a doctor is needed to accurately determine the cause of any symptoms.

How are neurological disorders diagnosed?

Diagnosis is made based on various investigations. Your doctor will first evaluate your medical history and symptoms before conducting a physical examination.

1. A detailed medical history

This is a detailed account of a patient’s past and present health and medical history. This includes the patient’s family medical history. This comprehensive information is valuable in helping the doctor make an accurate diagnosis.

2. Physical examination

This examination is an evaluation of the physical body to provide insight into the patient's general health.

3. Neurological examination

Evaluates motor and sensory abilities, coordination, balance, vision, hearing and speech. It may also assess mood, behaviour, and mental status. Examining instruments include a tuning fork, flashlight, reflex hammer, and an instrument for eye examination.

4. Computed tomography (CT) scans

A CT scan creates detailed images of the inside of your body using X-rays and a computer. It can aid in diagnosing bone and vascular irregularities, brain tumours and cysts, brain damage due to head injury or hydrocephalus and brain haemorrhage.

5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans

This diagnostic test uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high-resolution images inside the body. A contrast dye may be injected into the vein to increase the visibility of certain parts of the brain.

6. Angiography

This is a test that involves the injection of dye into veins or arteries in order to detect narrowing or blockage. It can also help to determine the size and location of a brain aneurysm or vascular malformation.

7. Biopsy

A small tissue sample of the brain, muscle or nerve may be removed and sent to the laboratory to be examined.

8. Other diagnostic tests

Other diagnostic tests include:

  • Lumbar puncture
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Electromyography (EMG)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
  • Ultrasound – carotid doppler ultrasound
  • X-rays
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan

How are neurological conditions treated?

The treatment options differ according to the types and severity of the conditions. Treatments options include:

Speak to your doctor if you or your loved ones have a neurological condition. The caring team of healthcare professionals are available for consultation and to provide the best care. Get in touch with us to book an appointment today. We assure you the best possible care tailored to your specific needs.

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